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Transition Report 2013 Stuck in transition?

Human
capital


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Human capital

Education, institutions and human capital

While many countries in the transition region perform well with respect to primary and secondary education, they are weaker when it comes to training and retaining highly skilled people. In addition, the financial returns to education vary...

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Education and human capital in transition and SEMED countries

At the beginning of the transition process the stock of human capital in the former communist economies was equivalent to – and even above – that in most advanced economies. The proportion of the population aged 25 and over that had completed at...

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Quality of education and human capital

Since 2000, 16 countries in the transition region have participated in international assessments of students in primary education and 25 have taken part in assessments of secondary students. Prior to this, participation was limited to a handful...

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Workforce skills and patents granted

A high-quality education at primary, secondary or tertiary level may not generate faster economic growth if the skills acquired during formal schooling do not match the demands of employers or the needs of the economy. According to some...

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Brain drain or brain gain?

Building high-quality human capital stock depends not only on the high quality of education, but also on a country's ability to attract and retain skilled people. This section focuses on emigration and brain drain, using data on international...

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Returns to tertiary education in transition region

People with tertiary schooling typically earn higher incomes than those who start work after completing secondary schooling, with the difference between the two representing returns to tertiary education. More precisely, returns to tertiary...

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Conclusion

In many transition countries the stock of human capital educated to secondary level or higher is nominally on a par with, or above, most mature market economies. However, there are large differences in the quality of human capital across the...

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Box 4.1 - Estimating returns to tertiary schooling

Box 4.1 - Estimating returns to tertiary schooling
Investigating the determinants of returns to tertiary schooling, as summarised in Table 4.2, is a two-stage process. The first involves estimating returns at the country level. The following equation is estimated for each country using the pooled...

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Annex 4.1. Measuring the quality of education

The rankings for primary and secondary education shown in Chart 4.2a and 4.2b in the main text are based on the combined average country scores in three international student assessments: the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study...

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References

N. Altinok, C. Diebolt and J.-L. Demeulemeester (2013)
“A new international database on education quality: 1965-2010”, Association Française de Cliométrie Working Paper No. 03-13. See www.cliometrie.org/images/wp/AFC_WP_03-2013.pdf (last accessed...

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