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Transition Report 2013 Stuck in transition?

CH2 180sq

Facts at a glance

70% Global proportion of countries which had democratic institutions in 2012, compared with 30 to 40 per cent from 1960 to 1990.

INCOME IN 1992 is correlated with levels of democracy in 2012 in a global sample.

Cover 180sqV2

 

94% of countries with average per capita income above US$ 10,000 held free and competitive elections in 1999.

BY 2000 all constituent democracies of the former Yugoslavia had become full democracies.


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Markets and democracy

Annex 2.1. Regression analysis of preferences for democracy

Table A.2.1.1

Support for democracy by regime type

1

  Established democracies Less democratic regimes
Dependent variable: Support for democracy
Baseline category: Household moved down the income ladder between 2006 and 2010
Household moved up the income ladder between 2006 and 2010 1.319** 1.137
(0.01) (0.64)
Household's income ladder position was unchanged 1.142* 1.07
(0.1) (0.42)
 
Baseline category: Private-sector employee
Employee of state-owned enterprise 0.555 0.667**
(0.13) (0.03)
Public service employment 0.847 0.734
(0.88) (0.17)
 
Baseline category: No degree/no education
Primary education 0.895  
(0.84)  
Lower secondary education 0.892 0.283
(0.83) (0.25)
Upper secondary education 1.27 0.252
(0.65) (0.2)
Post-secondary non-tertiary education 1.365 0.208*
(0.54) (0.07)
Bachelor's degree 1.695 0.229
(0.33) (0.19)
Master's degree or PhD 2.354 0.372
(0.11) (0.42)
 
Employee of state-owned enterprise with
Primary education 1.799  
(0.2)  
Lower secondary education 2.574** 1.016
(0.03) (0.98)
Upper secondary education 2.046 1.972***
(0.1) (0.01)
Post-secondary non-tertiary education 1.389 1.525
(0.45) (0.37)
Bachelor's degree 2.294** 1.579
(0.02) (0.3)
Master's degree or PhD 1 1
(.) (.)
 
Public service employee with
Primary education 1.42  
(0.74)  
Lower secondary education 1.36 1.441
(0.78) (0.52)
Upper secondary education 1.382 1.856
(0.76) (0.14)
Post-secondary non-tertiary education 1.453 1.282
(0.73) (0.52)
Bachelor's degree 1.39 2.563**
(0.77) (0.02)
Master's degree or PhD 0.997  
(1)  
 
Baseline category: Age 18-24
Age: 25-34 0.96 0.861
(0.72) (0.41)
Age: 35-44 0.904 0.807
(0.44) (0.11)
Age: 45-54 0.954 0.843
(0.7) (0.15)
Age: 55-64 0.958 0.624*
(0.71) (0.06)
Age: 65+ 1.365* 0.313**
(0.1) (0.04)
Male 1.164** 1.271**
(0.02) (0.05)
Baseline 0.67 3.956
(0.46) (0.23)
N 7571 2698
Source: LiTS (2010).
Note: The table reports the result of a logit regression, in which the baseline category is an 18 to 24-year-old woman working for the private sector with no education. The coefficients are exponentiated and reported as odds ratios. An odds ratio greater than 1 means that a variable or group is more favourable to democracy than the baseline category, while a coefficient of less than 1 means that support for democracy is lower than in the baseline category. P-values are reported in parentheses; * = p<0.10; ** = p<0.05; *** = p<0.01.

  1. For the purposes of this analysis, "established democracies" are countries with a score of 5 or more on the Polity2 index in 2012, and "less democratic regimes" are those with a score of less than 5. [back]

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